What is Kidney Stones?

Kidney stones are usually based on calcium salts, uric acid, cystine and struvite. Of the
calcium stones the majority are made of calcium oxalate and calcium phosphate.

The commonest kidney stones are the calcium ones. Men are more affected and the formation of a stone is generally between 30-40 years. The average rate of new stone formation in patients who have previously formed a stone is about every 2-3 years.

Causes of Stones

1. Calcium stones.

a. Hereditary.
b. Increased uric acid levels in blood due to diet.
c. Hyperparathyroidism due to cancer.
d. Hyperoxaluria due to hereditary or bowel surgery.
e. Unknown.

2. Uric acid stones.

a. Gout.
b. Dehydration due to poor water intake.
c. Cancers.
3. Cystine stones: Hereditary.
4. Struvite stones: Infections.

Clinical Features

1. Initially asymptomatic
2. Blood in the urine.
3. Flank pains.
4. With the passage of stone there is acute pain and bleeding. Pain radiates downwards
from the flanks towards the loin, testicle. Pain is colicky in nature and the patient cannot
lie still, turning this way and that.

Management

1. Immediately consult a doctor.
2. Drink lots of fluids.
3. Diet should contain less calcium.
4. Treat the pain.

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