Pelvic Inflammatory Disease
What is Pelvic Inflammatory Disease?
Pelvic Inflammatory Disease is defined as the acute or chronic inflammation of the female reproductive organs. Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) is an acute, subacute, recurrent, or chronic infection of the oviducts and ovaries, with adjacent tissue involvement. It includes inflammation of the cervix (cervicitis), uterus (endometritis), fallopian tubes (salpingitis), and ovaries (oophoritis), which can extend to the connective tissue lying between the broad ligaments (parametritis). Pelvic Inflammatory Disease is an ascending infection from the vagina to the uterus and fallopian tubes (salpingitis).
Causes of Pelvic Inflammatory Disease
1. Sexually active women below 35 years.
4. Risk increases following childbirth, abortion.
5. Women with intra-uterine contraceptive device (IUD).
Clinical Features of Pelvic Inflammatory Disease
1. Pain in the pelvic region.
2. Malaise, fever.
3. Foul-smelling vaginal discharge.
4. Abnormal menstrual bleeding.
5. Painful sex.
Management of Pelvic Inflammatory Disease
Admit to a hospital.
Signs and symptoms of Pelvic Inflammatory Disease
The following are the most common symptoms of PID. However, each individual may experience symptoms differently.
Symptoms of PID include:
- diffuse pain and tenderness in the lower abdomen
- pelvic pain
- increased foul-smelling vaginal discharge
- fever and chills
- vomiting and nausea
- pain during sexual intercourse
Symptoms may be mild enough that the condition may go undiagnosed.
The symptoms of the pelvic inflammatory disease may resemble other conditions or medical problems. Always consult your physician for a diagnosis.
Diagnosis of Pelvic Inflammatory Disease
Diagnostic tests generally include:
- Gram stain of secretions from the endocervix or cul-de-sac, Culture and sensitivity testing aids selection of the appropriate antibiotic. Urethral and rectal secretions may also be cultured.
- ultrasonography to identify an adnexal or uterine mass. (X-rays seldom identify pelvic masses.)
- culdocentesis to obtain peritoneal fluid or pus for culture and sensitivity testing.
In addition, patient history is significant. In general, PID is associated with recent sexual intercourse, IUD insertion, childbirth, or abortion.