Migraine – Migraine is defined as an episodic headache, which is one-sided, often associated with vomiting and visual disturbances. It occurs commonly in women.

Stroke – Stroke is a half-sided paralysis that occurs that results from a certain area of brain damage due to interruption of blood supply.

Multiple Sclerosis – Multiple Sclerosis is a disease that is usually present in the form of recurrent attacks of focal or multifocal neurological dysfunction of the brain and the spinal cord. The disease process attacks the myelin sheaths of the nerves and disrupts their function.

Alzheimer’s Disease – Alzheimer’s Disease is a condition is a degenerative disease and one of the commonest causes of dementia in the elderly. Alzheimer’s Disease is characterised by the death of nerve cells in the cerebral hemispheres of the brain. This gradually leads to the atrophy of the brain, which shrinks in size.

Parkinson’s Disease – Parkinson’s Disease is a degenerative disease occurring in the basal ganglia of the brain and a decrease in a biochemical compound called dopamine of which the cause is unknown.

Brain Abscess – What is Brain Abscess? Brain abscess is linked to chronic ear, sinus or lung infections as well as contaminated penetrating wounds or post-operative surgery. The source of infection can also come from skin infections, bone, teeth or the heart.

Wernicke’s Encephalopathy – Clinical features 1. Weakness or paralysis of the 6th cranial nerve resulting in double vision, squint and rapid movements side to side of the eyes. 2. Ataxia-Patient unable to stand or walk without support. 3. Derangement of mental functions-Confusional state.

Bacterial Meningitiswhat is Bacterial Meningitis? It is defined as an inflammation of the pia-arachnoid membranes covering the brain and the fluid residing in the space, which it encloses. Causes 1. Penetrating injuries of the skull. 2. Tuberculosis. 3. Spread of infection.

Subarachnoid Hemorrhage – What is Subarachnoid Hemorrhage? The subarachnoid space is the area between two of the meninges (Arachnoid and pia mater) that cover the brain. This space normally contains a fluid called the cerebrospinal fluid. Bleeding into this space takes place from.

PellagraWhat is Pellagra? Pellagra is a chronic wasting disease associated with skin changes (dermatitis), dementia and diarrhea. Dermatitis bilateral, symmetrical and is present at sites exposed to the sun and is due to photosensitivity. The mental changes include fatigue, insomnia,

Spinal Cord InjuryWhat is Spinal Cord Injury? Spinal cord injuries are common after falls from buildings, trees, walls, road traffic accidents, horse riding, bullet injuries and ship bunks. Paraplegia (lower limb paralysis) or quadriplegia (all four limbs paralysed) results due to compression
Duchenne’s Muscular DystrophyWhat is Duchenne’s Muscular Dystrophy? Duchenne’s Muscular Dystrophy is a condition that involves wasting of muscles and is hereditary in nature. It is a sex-linked disorder wherein the mother is the carrier. Males are affected. Clinical Features 1. Male children 
Myasthenia GravisWhat is Myasthenia Gravis? Myasthenia Gravis is a chronic disease characterised by abnormal weakness and fatigability on exertion. It is due to a shortage of an enzyme called Acetylcholine as a result of acetyle choline receptor deficiency. Acetyle choline is 
Brain Tumors – What is Brain Tumor? It is a growth of abnormal cells within the brain that may be cancerous or non-cancerous. Brain tumors produce symptoms by compression of adjacent tissues or by the infiltrative spread. Many of the symptoms are caused
Cerebral HemorrhageWhat is Cerebral Hemorrhage? The average affected individuals range from middle-aged to old. The onset is explosive with headache and vomiting. Loss of consciousness occurs and there is rapid deterioration. Hypertension is always present. Blood vessel rupture is present.
Beri BeriWhat is Beri Beri? This condition is mostly seen on a background of prolonged ingestion of alcohol. It is present in more than 80% of cases of Wernicke-Korsakoff’s disease. The development of vitamin B1 deficiency in chronic alcoholics is due
Nerve PainWhat is Nerve Pain? It is described as pain in the part of an area or the whole area supplied by a nerve without any physical changes. Types of Neuralgia 1. Trigeminal Neuralgia-Usually affects one side of the face.
SciaticaWhat is Sciatica? The sciatica nerve is derived from the fourth and fifth lumbar as well as the first and second sacral nerve roots. It provides nerve supply to the lower limbs. This nerve is commonly injured in the fracture
Tension Headache – What is Tension Headache? Tension Headache is the commonest form of headache. The pain is usually constant and may be generalised. Causes Stress Anxiety Depression Clinical Features The patient experiences a dull, tight, pressure-like band around the head. Headache may
LathyrismWhat is Lathurism? Lathyrism is a paralysing disease of humans-Neurolathyrism because it affects the nervous system. It is a crippling disease characterised by gradually developing stiff paralysis of the lower limbs occurring mostly in adults who consume the pulse called
Cerebral EmbolismThe average affected individual is a young female. The heart is the most common source of embolic material. The onset is sudden. The patient is dazed. The incident is preceded by a severe headache. No hypertension is present. The area
Huntington’ Chorea – What is Huntington’ Chorea? Huntington’s Chorea is a genetic disorder characterised by the appearance of dementia and involuntary jerky movements of the whole body, beginning in mid-adult life. There is atrophy of the basal ganglia in the brain. The degree
Cerebral Infection – What is Cerebral Infection? The average affected individual is middle-aged or elderly. The onset is slow and progressive (stroke in evolution). A bruit may be felt in one carotid artery in the neck indicating the area of narrowing by a
Transient Ischaemic AttacksWhat is Transient Ischaemic Attack? Transient Ischaemic Attacks are transient neurological dysfunction. It involves the appearance of a sudden focal neurologic deficit that clears completely in less than 24 hours. The brain has its own blood supply, which gets interrupted

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