What is Hypertension?
Blood pressure above 140/90 constitutes hypertension. Increase in diastolic pressure is more important in the definition of hypertension.
Types of Hypertension (Diastolic)
1. Mild hypertension: Diastolic pressure between 90-104 mm Hg.
2. Moderatehypertension: Pressure between 105-114 mm Hg.
3. Severe hypertension: Pressure above 115 mm Hg.
4. Malignant hypertension: Pressure above 140 mm Hg.
Causes of Hypertension
1. Unknown: Essential hypertension (greater than 90% cases), toxemia pregnancy.
2. Renal: Chronic infection, acute and chronic inflammation of glomeruli, polycystic kidney disease, kidney infection, renal artery stenosis, tumors.
3. Endocrine: Oral contraceptives, adrenal gland dysfunctions, tumor of adrenal gland, hypoactivity of the thyroid gland (Myxedema).
4. Blood vessels: Constriction or narrowing of aorta, excessive transfusion, inflammation of arteries.
Risk Factors for Hypertension
1. Black race.
2. Male sex.
5. High blood cholesterol.
Effects of Hypertension
1. Cardiac – Enlarged heart, heart failure, heart attack.
2. Eyes – Hemorrhage within retina, edema.
3. Kidney – Decreased functions.
4. Brain – Strokes.
Management of Hypertension
1. Change of lifestyle.
2. Switch to low fat diet
4. Avoid stress.
5. Stop smoking.
6. Lose weight.
7. Consult a doctor for drug therapy.