What is Acute Myocardial Infarction?
Acute Myocardial Infarction is defined as the sudden blockage of one or more coronary arteries as a result of coronary atheroslerosis, thrombus, embolus. In myocardial infarction (MI), also known as heart attack, reduced blood flow through one of the coronary arteries results in myocardial ischemia and necrosis. In cardiovascular disease, the leading cause of death in the United States and western Europe, death usually results from cardiac damage or complications of MI. Acute Myocardial Infarction is one of the commonest heart ailments in middle aged andelderly individuals.
Clinical Features of Acute Myocardial Infarction
1. Acute chest pain radiating to the left arm or into neck, jaw or into upper part of the abdomen. Pain lasts more than 20 minutes.
5. Mild fever.
6. Cold clammy skin.
7. Rapid pulse, low BP and collapse.
Management of Acute Myocardial Infarction
To preserve myocardial tissue, thrombolytic therapy should be started I.V. within 3 hours after the onset of symptoms (unless contraindications exist). Thrombolytic therapy includes either streptokinase, alteplase, recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (t-PA), retivase, or urokinase.
1. Complete bed rest.
2. Patient to be propped up.
3. If person stops breathing and heart stops, commence CPR.
4. Immediately shift to hospital.
Signs and Symptoms of Acute Myocardial Infarction
The following are the most common symptoms of a heart attack. However, each individual may experience symptoms differently. Symptoms may include:
- severe pressure, fullness, squeezing, pain and/or discomfort in the center of the chest that lasts for more than a few minutes
- pain or discomfort that spreads to the shoulders, neck, arms, or jaw
- chest pain that increases in intensity
- chest pain that is not relieved by rest or by taking cardiac prescription medication
- chest pain that occurs with any/all of the following (additional) symptoms: sweating, cool, clammy skin, and/or paleness
- shortness of breath
- nausea or vomiting
- dizziness or fainting
- unexplained weakness or fatigue
- rapid or irregular pulse