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Nephritis

 

Acute Kidney Failure
Acute Pyelonephritis
Cystitis
Kidney Stones
Nephritis
Nephrotic Syndrome
Polycystic Kidney Disease

This condition results from structural and functional disintegration of the glomerular capillary circulation. A patient with Lupus Nephritis presents a complex therapeutic approach. Treatment depends on the symptoms. Medicines can decrease swelling, lower blood pressure, and decrease inflammation by suppressing the immune system. In kidney failure, waste and extra fluid build up and can cause problems with your heart, brain, lungs and other organs. It can lead to serious illness or death. Nephritis is an older term used to clinically denote a child with hypertension, decreased renal function, hematuria, and edema. Some types of nephritis involve infiltration of kidney tissues by white blood cells and deposits of antibodies. In other types of nephritis, inflammation may consist of tissue swelling or scarring without white blood cells or antibodies.

Nephritis is inflammation of the kidneys. It may be caused by a bacterial infection of the kidneys or exposure to a toxin. Nephritis also results from metabolic and toxic disorders, including the deposition of urates in the kidney, hypercalcemia (high blood calcium) with deposition of calcium in the kidney, chronic lead intoxication, and cadmium toxicity. The word comes from the Greek nephro- meaning "of the kidney" and -itis meaning "inflammation". For most it comes and goes with little disruption to their lives. Technically, nephritis suggests a noninfectious inflammatory process involving the nephron; glomerulonephritis generally is a more precise term. Lupus nephritis is highly variable in its histological manifestation and in its clinical presentation. The only way to define the histology type of Lupus nephritis is by examining a small sample of kidney tissue obtained by biopsy.

Tubulointerstitial nephritis may be acute or chronic, and it often results in kidney failure. Nephritis has the effect of damaging and closing up the microscopic filters in the kidney. In adults, diseases that frequently underlie nephritis include vasculitis (inflammation of the blood vessels), pneumonia, abscesses, infections such as measles, mumps or glandular fever, hepatitis - and a range of different immune disorders that cause types of glomerulonephritis. Nephritis most often affects the tufts of microscopic blood vessels (glomeruli) with small pores through which blood is filtered. Such inflammation is called glomerulonephritis. Recognition of a drug-related cause is important because severe renal damage is often preventable or reversible.

Causes of Nephritis

The comman causes of Nephritis include the following:

  • It may be caused by a bacterial infection of the kidneys or exposure to a toxin.
  • It often causes nephrotic syndrome (excessive protein excretion) and may progress rapidly to renal failure.
  • Antibiotics such as penicillin and the sulfonamides, diuretics, and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs)-including aspirin may trigger an allergic reaction.
  • Gout.
  • Certain poisons.
  • Certain health conditions that affect the immune system, such as lupus.
  • Hypertension ( high blood pressure) is a very well known cause of chronic nephritis.
  • Bacterial infection of the kidneys (pyelonephritis) can also cause acute or chronic tubulointerstitial nephritis.
  • In general, nephritis (nonsuppurative) is produced by the trapping of antigen-antibody complexes (or some other unknown mechanism) in the renal parenchyma.

Symptoms of Nephritis

Some sign and symptoms related to Nephritis are as follows:

  • Swelling of the tissues (initially the face and around the eyes, later more prominent in the legs).
  • One or both kidneys affected.
  • Tiredness and general malaise (feeling ill).
  • Cloudy urine.
  • Difficulty breathing.
  • Pus in the urine.
  • Changes in mental status, such as drowsiness or confusion.
  • Weight gain (from extra fluid in your body).
  • Joint redness.
  • Mouth ulcers (painless).
  • Reduced urine.
  • Elevated blood pressure.
  • Fever and rash may develop after exposure to sun.
  • In rapidly progressive disease, loss of appetite, vomiting, abdominal pain and joint pain may occur.

Treatment of Nephritis

Here is list of the methods for treating Nephritis:

  • Dialysis may be necessary to control symptoms of acute or chronic renal failure.
  • Corticosteroids or other immunosuppressive medications are often effective in reducing symptoms.
  • Dietary restriction of sodium (salt) and fluid may control swelling and hypertension.
  • A kidney transplant may be recommended to treat kidney failure resulting from lupus nephritis.
  • Hypertension can be managed with antihypertensives, such as calcium channel–blocking agents, angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors, peripheral vasodilators, and diuretics.
  • Corticosteroids or anti-inflammatory medications may be of benefit in some cases.
  • In the case of chronic pyelonephritis, a six-month course of antibiotics may be necessary to rid the infection. Surgery is sometimes necessary.
  • Dietary restriction of protein may be needed to control azotemia (accumulation of nitrogenous waste products in the blood) associated with acute renal failure .