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Home :: Reproductive Diseases

Pelvic Inflammatory Disease

 

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PELVIC INFLAMMATORY DISEASE is defined as the acute or chronic inflammation of the female reproductive organs. Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) is any acute, subacute, recurrent, or chronic infection of the oviducts and ovaries, with adjacent tissue involvement. It includes inflammation of the cervix (cervicitis), uterus (endometritis), fallopian tubes (salpingitis), and ovaries (oophoritis), which can extend to the connective tissue lying between the broad ligaments (parametritis). Pelvic Inflammatory Disease is an ascending infection from the to the uterus and fallopian tubes (salpingitis).

Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) is a spectrum of infections of the female genital tract that includes endometritis, salpingitis, tuboovarian abscess, and peritonitis. Normally, the cervix (opening to the womb) prevents bacteria from spreading up into these organs. This may lead to tissue necrosis with/or without abscess formation. PID may also develop when bacteria travel up a contraceptive device or when they're introduced during gynecologic procedures, such as an abortion or insertion of an intrauterine device (IUD). Pelvic inflammatory disease can result from infection by the bacteria Chlamydia trachomatis, which can be passed through contact. This causes the lining of the tubes to become red and swollen, and makes the already narrow canals even narrower.  In the United States, more than 1 million women seek treatment for PID each year, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). PID can damage the fallopian tubes and tissues in and near the uterus and ovaries. Untreated PID can lead to serious consequences including infertility, ectopic pregnancy (a pregnancy in the fallopian tube or elsewhere outside of the womb), abscess formation, and chronic pelvic pain. Each year more than 1 million women in the United States are diagnosed with PID. More than 100,000 women become infertile as a result of PID, while others experience complications during pregnancy. Prompt treatment of a transmitted disease can help prevent PID.

PID can affect the fallopian tubes (the tubes that carry eggs from the ovary to the uterus, or womb) It is a common and serious complication of some transmitted diseases (STDs), especially chlamydia and gonorrhea . It can also involve the tissues in and near the uterus and ovaries. PID should be classified by affected organs, the stage of the infection, and the organism(s) causing it. PID may be detected only later when a woman has trouble becoming pregnant and learns that her reproductive organs have been damaged. Fertilised eggs may not be able to move along normally, increasing the risk of ectopic pregnancy and infertility.  PID is a vague term and can refer to viral, fungal, parasitic, though most often bacterial infections. The outer surfaces of the tubes may begin to stick to those of other organs such as the bladder and rectum.  PID is more common among teen-age than adult women. It is also more common among African-American and Hispanic women. PID rates are highest among active adolescents. Other risk factors include multiple partners, use of an IUD (intrauterine device for birth control), douching, and a prior episode of PID.

Causes of Pelvic Inflammatory Disease

The common Causes of Pelvic Inflammatory Disease :

  • spread of an infection in the blood stream from other parts of the body
  • In less-developed countries, PID may be due to a granulomatous salpingitis caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Schistosoma species.
  • A single bacteria or mixture of several bacteria may cause the infection.
  • childbirth
  • A transmitted disease (STD) organism is not recovered in a third of women with PID.
  • The most common bacteria that cause PID are gonorrhea and chlamydia.
  • spread of a germ from a nearby organ, as in appendicitis
  • Bacteroides species (other than Bacteroides fragilis )
  • Genital Mycoplasma and Ureaplasma species, coliforms
  • normal bacteria sometimes spreads into the uterus, fallopian tubes and abdomen, causing Pelvic Inflammatory Disease (PID)

Symptoms of Pelvic Inflammatory Disease

Some common Symptoms of Pelvic Inflammatory Disease :

  • discharge with abnormal color, consistency or odor.
  • Fever.
  • Abdominal pain.
  • Irregular menstrual bleeding.
  • Pain in the upper right abdomen (rare).
  • Fever (not always present; may come and go).
  • Pain during a pelvic exam.
  • Unusual or heavy discharge.
  • Vomiting.
  • Low back pain.
  • Cramps.
  • Fatigue.

Treatment of Pelvic Inflammatory Disease

  • Antibiotics (two or more antibiotics may be used together to affect  any possible bacteria that may have caused the condition).
  • Outpatient therapy has been ineffective.
  • Another severe illness is present that could complicate the course of PID or have an adverse effect on treatment.
  • Abstinence.
  • Bed rest.
  • Sometimes intravenous (IV) treatment is required.
  • It has been impossible to rule out surgical emergencies, such as appendicitis and ectopic pregnancy.
  • Severe illness or nausea and vomiting precluding outpatient treatment.
  • Abstinence