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Home :: Neurology Disorders

Transient Ischaemic Attacks

 

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Transient Ischaemic Attacks
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Transient Ischaemic Attacks is a transient neurological dysfunction. It involves the appearance of sudden focal neurologic deficit that clears completely in less than 24 hours. A transient ischemic attack is a brief interruption of the blood flow to the brain. TIAs occur when a blood clot temporarily blocks an artery and prevents an area of the brain from receiving the blood and oxygen it needs. About one in three people who have a TIA eventually have a stroke, with about half occurring during the year after the TIA.can serve as both a warning and an opportunity a warning of an impending stroke and an opportunity to take steps to prevent it.

The brain has its own blood supply, which gets interrupted for a short while. The cause lies in the heart or blood vessels elsewhere, and TIAs are warning signs of an impending stroke unless something is done about the cause. Arterial narrowing or occlusion and inadequate collateral circulation produces transient focal ischaemia (low flow) to a particular area of the brain. A transient short lived episode of weakness of one half of the face, an arm, leg and foot results. Speech difficulties may arise.

TIA is the abbreviation for "transient ischemic attack." Transient means "passing with time," or "to exist briefly." It occurs when the blood supply to part of the brain is briefly interrupted. Recognizing and treating can reduce your risk of a major stroke. You try to talk to a fellow shopper, but your words sound garbled, and others seem confused by your speech. A transient ischemic attack ( TIA , often colloquially referred to as " mini stroke ") is caused by the temporary disturbance of blood supply to a restricted area of the brain , resulting in brief neurologic dysfunction that usually persists for less than 24 hours. Symptoms can include: numbness or weakness in the face, arm, or leg, especially on one side of the body; confusion or difficulty in talking or understanding speech; trouble seeing in one or both eyes; and difficulty with walking, dizziness, or loss of balance and coordination. Risk factors for a transient ischemic attack (TIA) and stroke are similar to those for heart disease: high blood pressure , diabetes , high blood cholesterol, cigarette smoking, obesity , and a family history of stroke or heart disease. TIAs are short-lived, lasting less than five minutes.

A transient ischemic attack is a "mini-stroke" caused by temporary disturbance of blood supply to an area of the brain, which results in a sudden, brief decrease in brain function. Ignoring this episode could have serious consequences for your health. You may have experienced a temporary or intermittent neurological event called a transient ischemic attack (TIA) However, of the people who've had one or more than a third will later have a stroke. The symptoms of appear and then go away because the human body has the ability to restore blood flow to the affected part of the brain under these circumstances. However, visible retinal emboli are often not observed as their very nature allows for the emboli to break up and move distally. This explains why cholesterol emboli typically result in transient neurologic deficits. They can occur days, weeks or even months before a major stroke. In about half the cases, the stroke occurs within one year of the TIA. The results of several studies indicate that longer occurred in patients with nonstenotic carotid arteries, suggesting that these TIAs were embolic in origin.

Causes of Transient Ischaemic Attacks

The common Causes of Transient Ischaemic Attacks :

  • The most common cause of a TIA is an embolus (a small blood clot) that occludes an artery in the brain.
  • Spasm of the small arteries in the brain .
  • This most frequently arises from an atherosclerotic plaque in one of the carotid arteries (i.e. a number of major arteries in the head and neck) or from a thrombus (i.e. a blood clot) in the heart due to atrial fibrillation.
  • Cerebral embolism.
  • TIA is related with other medical conditions like hypertension , heart disease (especially atrial fibrillation ), migraine , cigarette smoking , hypercholesterolemia , and diabetes mellitus.
  • Drug abuse (eg, cocaine).
  • Problems with blood vessels caused by disorders such as fibromuscular dysplasia, inflammation of the arteries (arteritis, polyarteritis, granulomatous angiitis), systemic lupus erythematosus, and syphilis.
  • Blood disorders (including polycythemia, sickle cell anemia, and hyperviscosity syndromes where the blood is very thick).

Symptoms of Transient Ischaemic Attacks

Some common Symptoms of Transient Ischaemic Attacks :

  • Sudden numbness or weakness of the face, arm or leg, especially on one side of the body.
  • Numbness , tingling , changes in sensation.
  • Slurred or garbled speech or difficulty understanding others.
  • Dizziness, loss of balance or loss of coordination.
  • Weakness , heavy feeling of extremities.
  • Lack of coordination.
  • Sudden difficulty in speaking or in understanding speech.
  • Drooping of one side of the face.
  • Partial loss of vision or double vision.
  • Loss of vision in one eye.

Treatment of Transient Ischaemic Attacks

Here is the list of the methods for treating Transient Ischaemic Attacks :

  • Treatment of recent TIA (within the prior 48 hours) usually requires admission to the hospital for evaluation of the specific cause and determination of long-term treatment.
  • Obtain an ECG and initiate treatment for symptomatic rhythms or evidence of ischemia.
  • Treatment of symptoms of blood disorders (such as erythrocytosis , thrombocytosis, or polycythemia vera , which include an increase in the number of some types of blood cells) may include phlebotomy, hydration, and treatment of the underlying (causative) blood disorder.
  • Rapid transport is essential to evaluate the patient who may have fleeting symptoms.
  • There are two basic methods of treatment: medical, with anticoagulant drugs; and surgical, with the opening and "cleaning out" of the obstructed arteries. Anticoagulation is usually done with aspirin or heparin and warfarin.
  • Aspirin is the most commonly used medication.
  • Administer supplemental oxygen.
  • Such treatments, which may include drug therapy or surgery, are focused on reducing the risk of stroke in individuals who have experienced a TIA.