Gallstones (choleliths) are crystalline bodies composed inside the body by accretion or concretion of normal or anomalistic bile components. Gallstones may form anywhere within the biliary tree, including the gallbladder and the usual bile duct. The gallbladder is a tiny, pear-shaped sac sited beneath your liver in the right upper abdomen.
Gallstones form when liquid cached in the gallbladder hardens into pieces of stone-like substance. The liquid—called bile—helps the body digest fats. Bile is secreted in the liver, then stored in the gallbladder till the body needs it.
Gallstones' size differs and can be as small as a sand grain or as large as a golf ball. The gallbladder can grow a single, often large, stone or many smaller ones, even distinct thousand.
People who are overweight or who are attempting to lose weight quickly are more likely to get gallstones. Gallstones generally pass in families, pointing to a possible genetic link. Gallstones have different appearance, awaitning of their contents. The two kinds of gallstones are cholesterol stones and pigment stones.
Cholesterol stones are normally green, but are occassionally white or yellow in color and account for around 80 percent of gallstones. They are primarily composed of cholesterol. Pigment stones are petite, dark stones made of bilirubin.
Gallstones can be as petty as a grain of sand or as healthy as a golf ball. Risk factors for pigment stones are cirrhosis, biliary tract infections, and genital blood cell disorders, such as sickle cell anemia.
Risk for gallstones include women—specially women who are pregnant, use hormone replacement meditation, or take birth control pills. The most common sign of gallstones is biliary colic. Biliary colic is a very unequivocal type of pain.
A main symptom of gallstones is commonly ascribed to as a gallstone "attack". A victim can also confront pain in the back, ordinarily between the shoulder blades, or pain under the right shoulder. In many cases, the pain arises in the lower region of the stomach, nearer to the pelvis, but this is less common.
Nausea and vomiting may occur. These attacks are fiercely painful, same to that of a kidneystone attack. If you do not have symptoms, you probably do not need treatment. Most people have their gallbladders removed, and the surgery normally goes well.
Cholecystectomy (gallbladder removal) has a 99% possibility of eliminating the recurrence of cholelithiasis. In open surgery, the gallbladder is detached through a large abdominal incision. Cholesterol gallstones can betimes be dissolved by oral ursodeoxycholic acid. A common misapprehension is that the use of ultrasound (Extracorporeal Shock Wave Lithotripsy) can be used to break up gallstones.
Though this treatment is highly effective against kidney stones, it can only seldom be used to break up the softer and less brittle gallstones. Laparoscopic cholecystectomy: 3-4 small puncture holes for camera and instruments. Laparoscopic surgery to remove the gallbladder is the most common treatment.